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175th Anniversary of Archaeologist, Ethnographer, Historian and Folklorist Zygmunt Gloger (1845-1910)

175th Anniversary of Archaeologist, Ethnographer, Historian and Folklorist Zygmunt Gloger (1845-1910)
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The heritage of Zygmunt Gloger strikes with the variety of author's interests and the number of scientific work results. The scientist belongs to those Polish researchers who have made a significant contribution to the study of the Belarusian history culture and folklore.

Zygmunt Gloger was born on November 3, 1845, in the village of Kamenka of the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Alongside the teachers invited to the estate, Zygmunt's father was in charge of the boy's education. He was a man of extremely broad knowledge. Zygmunt Gloger completed his home education at Leschinsky's Private Boarding House. In 1865, Zygmunt entered the University of Warsaw. During his studies, he met the writer A. Plug, the future creator of the monumental multivolume "Belarusian People" M. Fedarowsky, the artist M. Andrioli. In 1868, Zygmunt became student at the University of Krakow, where he studied history and archaeology.

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The scientific activity of the future talented ethnographer and folklorist began at the age of 16, when he, having taken interest in the way of life of people and folklore, began to gather and to record rites, legends, ethnographical customs. The first book “Wedding Celebrations” («Obchody weselne») was published in 1869. It included the records of Belorussian people rites from the Brest and Troksky districts. A special place takes the collection "The Polish Year in Life, Tradition and Song" (Rok polski w życiu, tradycyi i pieśni), which is a collection of works of art, ethnographic records and essays. Z. Gloger wrote about the life, customs, rites and beliefs of the Belarusian people in the articles "Agricultural Rites" (1867); "The Customs of People from the Vicinity of Tikotin and Belsk" (1868); "Wedding names, expressions and objects used in wedding ceremonies in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1877); "Superstitions and Beliefs of the People to the North of the Narva in Respect of Birds, Reptiles and Insects" (1877) and others.

In 1870, Z. Gloger together with his wife, the daughter of the Belarusian writer A. Jelski, moved to the Estate of Jazhava near Tikotin. Quick off the mark, always in search of new materials, the scientist traveled a lot around his native land. Among interesting trips was a trip to the Biełaviežskaja Pušča (1881), which resulted in an essay "Białowezha". Materials about Belarus are also collected in the book "Along the River Valleys: The Description of Travels Along Nioman, Visla, Bug and Bebzhi" ("Dolinami rzek : opisy podróży wzdłuż Niemna, Wisły, Bugu i Biebrzy"), a foreword to which was written by Eliza Azheska. The takeaways from the travels around Belarus were also published on the pages of other editions and articles ("Podróż Niemnem" and others). Gloger collected a rich library, an extensive museum collection, which contained Belarusian folklore and ethnographic materials from the collections of Tyshkevichs, M. Fedarowsky, A. Kirkor, A. Jelski, etc in Jazhava.

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The "Ancient Poland Encyclopaedia" ("Encyklopedja staropolska ilustrowana") prepared by the scientists contains materials on history, geography, wood and stone architecture, printing, material and spiritual culture of the Belarusians, as well as a large number of illustrations. Being a member of the Historical Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Zygmunt Gloger participated in the preparation for many other encyclopaedic publications.

Z. Gloger's main features as a scientist were outstanding fitness for work and firm ambition. Due to these qualities, Zigmunt Gloger wrote about 800 scientific works that are now regional study treasury for contemporary researchers.

Poland holds the competition and presents Zygmunt Gloger Medal for special achievements in research, protection and the development of culture since 1983.

Information about the life and activities of the scientist, information about his works and biographical materials stored in the collections of the National Library of Belarus can be found in such information resources as the E-Catalogue, the online encyclopaedia "Belarus in Persons and Events", the National Database of Authoritative/Regulatory Records.

Bibliology Research Department

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