Globally speaking cycling is moving on the ground using vehicles (bicycles) driven by human muscle power.

History and development in the world

Globally speaking cycling is moving on the ground using vehicles (bicycles) driven by human muscle power.

Cycling includes such disciplines as track cycling, road bicycle racing, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, time trial, cycle ball, artistic cycling. In addition, cycling is a part of triathlon.

Track cycling is cycling sport which takes place on bicycle tracks or velodromes. There are individual, team, pair and group races.

Road cycling is one of the disciplines of cycling, implying racing on hard roads on road bikes.

Road races last one or several days, can be individual (the driver starts one), team (teams start in turn) and group (a general start for all athletes).

Cycling emerged in the late XIX century. Its development is inextricably connected with the history of the bicycle.

In 1817 Karl von Drais invented a two-wheeled vehicle with steering, which could only be driven alternately by kicking off the ground. It was made from wood and had weight about 22 kg. Drais called it Laufmaschine (that means "running machine" in German).

The word "bicycle" appeared thanks to Pierre Michaux and was composed of the Latin words velocis (fast) and pedis (legs).

The first official bicycle race was held in France on May 31, 1868 in the Paris suburban park of Saint-Cloud. The J. Moore won the race at a distance of 2 km.

In 1869 the first road race at a distance of 120 km, in which G. Moore finished in 10 hours and 45 minutes, i.e. with the speed of a pedestrian athlete. In the future, the speed of the bike was increased to 30 km / h.

Since 1870 construction of tracks began in France, Italy, Great Britain and other countries.

Dorozhna gonka "Bordo - Parizh"

In 1891 the traditional road race Bordeaux - Paris (600 km) was held for the first time.

The first world track cycling championship took place in 1893 in Chicago (USA). In 1896 the first six-day race on the track took place in USA.

Since 1921 the world championships of races on the highway begin to be held in Copenhagen.

Since 1930 European Championships are held only in indoor tracks.

1st professional cycling race around France - “Tour de France”

In 1903, the first professional race around France, the “Tour de France” (5000 km), was held.

On April 8, 1896 the cyclists from 5 European countries took part at Olympics for the first time. The competition program included 5 types of races on the track and one on the road.

In 1900 the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) was founded.

At the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles women perform in road races for the first time.

Since 1988 women have won the right to compete in the Olympics in sprint and pursuit race on the track.

A road bike can have up to 14 gears and is equipped with first-class brakes. There are only one gear and no brakes in the track bike. The speed of cyclists on the track on rounded edges can reach 64.5 km / h.

By the beginning of the 90s new types of cycling sports − mountain bike, triathlon, number of disciplines of the track program of the competition – became popular.

The history of the development of cycling in Belarus

The first bicycles in Belarus appeared in Grodno, Vitebsk and Minsk.

According to archival data, a bicycle appeared in Vitebsk in the late 1870s. Because of its complexity and considerable weight (more than 80 kg), he did not become popular.

The history of the first bicycle appeared in Minsk is associated with the time when a student of the city school, Mikhail Dzevochko, received a bicycle of the “spider” model from one of the visiting circus performers. According to some information, it was in 1877.

Michael Dzevochko

Later, in the 1890s, Dzevochko became one of the most famous cyclists in Minsk. In 1893 he won the competition near Moscow, and after 2 years he won the international race Petersburg − Moscow. In 1892 the Minsk Sports Amateurs Society chaired by K. Czapski was founded in Minsk.

A branch of the Russian Cycle Touring Club has been opened in Brest. In 1893, a group of lovers made a unique bike ride Brest - Kobrin - Verkholesie - Velikorita – Brest (145 km).

The first tracks were created for a short time with the consent of the city government, to appraise the interest of citizens. Today, there is information and photographs of bicycle tracks in Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno and Mogilev, i.e. in all major Belarusian cities at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries.

At the meeting of August 26, 1896 the Minsk City Duma decided “to give people experimentally a free plot of land in the city garden for one year”. As a result, the Minsk cycle track existed for more than 20 years.

The first cycling competitions were held in Vitebsk in 1894.

In 1895 Belarusian cyclist Dmitry Kologrivov participated in an international meeting in St. Petersburg as part of the Russian national team.

In 1926 the first Republican Cycling Championship was held.

In the 1930s multi days cycling competitions were held on the territory of modern Belarus.

Boris Bolshakov
Book «Чэмпіён краіны»

In 1937 Boris Bolshakov won at the first BSSR road racing championship (1200 km).

Nikolai Dranko, native of the Brest region, became the first Belarusian to take part in the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam (albeit as a member of the Polish team), where he took 5th place in the track cycling. By this time he was already a repeated winner of track and road races in Poland.

Nikolai Dranko

After the World War II Nikolai Dranko founded a children's youth sports school in Brest. He is the first Merited Coach of the Republic of Belarus in cycling. More than 50 of trainees became winners of the USSR Championships. For example E. Malts, the USSR champion in cycling in 1954. In the 1950s N. Dranko trained athletes for the multi-day race “Giro d’Italia” and “Tour de France”. He participated in competitions up to fifty years, and during trainings he were training together with his trainees even unto grey hairs.

In the postwar years cycling in the BSSR was very popular. The country’s cyclists actively participated in the USSR championships, individually or in the national team of the Soviet Union at the Olympics.

Victory march of Belarusian cyclists on the track:

Mikhail Kolyushev is Honored Master of Sports of the USSR (1965), World Champion in 1965, San Sebastian, Spain; 1987, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, bronze medalist (1966, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) in the team pursuit. USSR champion in the team race (1965, 1968). World and USSR record holder.

Viktor Bykov is World Champion in team racing (1967, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 1969 Brno, Czech Republic), bronze medalist of the world championship in the individual and team race (1970, Lestor, Great Britain), USSR champion in the individual (1965, 1966) and team (1968, 1989, 1971) races, winner of international and all-union competitions.

Alexander Dokhlyakov is winner of the World Cup race in the team competition in 1965 and 1966, the silver medalist in the individual competition in 1966, the World Class Master of Sports.

Valentina Smirnova is the first Belarusian who won the silver in 1974 World Championships in the sprint. In 1994 Lyudmila Gorozhanskaya won the bronze.

Boris Isaev, being in the national team of the USSR, won the World Races in 1976 and 1980.

Vladimir Kaminsky and Oleg Logvin became Olympic champions, being in the USSR team. Vladimir Kaminsky was a member of a quartet of Soviet athletes who won the team race on the road in Montreal-76.

Vladimir Kaminsky
«Спортивная энциклопедия Беларуси»

Oleg Logvin became the champion in the same discipline at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, entered the first Soviet professional team "Alfalum". He performed in Holland, Belgium, France, and Portugal.

Oleg Logvin
«Спортивная энциклопедия Беларуси»

The development of cycling in Belarus at the present time

On January 17, 1992 the Belarusian Cycling Federation (BCF) public association was founded, which is recognized by the International Cycling Union (UCI) and the European Union of cyclists (UEC).

The main objective of the BCF is to popularize and develop cycling and cycling in the Republic of Belarus.

Track cycling

In 2009 the "Velodrom" complex was built in Minsk. It’s a unique sports complex, which allows to hold sports competitions at the highest level.

In July 2009 the European Track Cycling Championship took place in Minsk. More than 400 athletes from 30 countries took part in the competition.

In February 2013 the Track Cycling World Championship took place at the “Velodrome”.

The initiators of the creation of the first cycling club: Nikolai Ladutko, Natalia Tsilinskaya and Alexey Ivanov

In 2013 due to the BCF the first professional cycling club in Belarus, “Minsk”, was founded. (

One of the main tasks of the club is the revival of the glorious traditions of Belarusian cycling, especially in track disciplines, as well as the creation of additional conditions for the successful performance of the national cycling team.

Natalya Tsilinskaya (track cycling) and Zinaida Stagurskaya (road racing) have become the brightest stars of the sovereign Belarusian cycling.

Natalia Tsilinskaya
Сalendar: «Спортсмены Республики Беларусь на играх XXVIII Олимпиады в Афинах»

Natalia Tsilinskaya
Sports programmes. Belarusian National Road Race Championships

Natalia Tsilinskaya is a recognized world leader in track racing. From 2000 to 2006, she became eight times the world champion, as well as the bronze medalist of the 2004 Olympics. At the World Cup stages N. Tsilinskaya won nine medals, seven of which were gold.

Zinaida Stagurskaya
Newspaper «Спортивная панорама»

Zinaida Stagurskaya was one of the strongest cyclist-road racers between the late 1990s and the early 2000s. In 2000 she became the world champion (Plouay, France) in the group race.

She is the winner of the multi-day cycling race: 1999, 2000, Giro di Toscana; 2001, Giro d’Italia, Italy; 2002, Tour de France, France. The winner of the multi-day cycling race "Big loop" (2002), Bronze medalist of the World Cup (2001).

Konstantin Sivtsov
Newspaper «Спортивная панорама»

The country's leading road cyclists compete in the strongest teams in the world: Konstantin Sivtsov and Vasiliy Kiriyenko in Sky Procycling (Great Britain), Evgeny Gutarovich in AG2r (France).

Konstantin Sivtsov is one of the best Belarusian cyclists. He got twice into the top 10 of the overall Giro d'Italia.

In 2004 Sivtsov won the gold medal at the World Championship in Verona, Italy, in the Anderea group race. In 2006 he became the champion of Belarus in the race group. Belarusian professional road cyclist. Bronze medalist of the World Championship in the 2013 team race. Sixfold Champion of Belarus on road cycling.

In 2005, 17-year-old Sergei Popok showed himself to be on the highway, becoming the bronze medal winner of the world championship among juniors in the group race.

Sergei Popok
Newspaper «Спортивная панорама»

Evgeny Gutarovich
Newspaper «Спортивная панорама»

Evgeny Gutarovich is the repeated champion of Belarus in the group race, the participant of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

In the 2009 Tour de France, debut for him, E. Gutarovich won the Lanterne Rouge prize. In 2010 he won the second stage of the Vuelta a España.

Champions and winners of the 1st European games

Vasily Kiriyenko - Belarusian professional road cyclist, 183 cm in height. He was born on June 28, 1981, in Rechitsa, BSSR.

Vasily Kiriyenko

Vasily Kiriyenko
Сalendar «Нацыянальны алімпійскі камітэт Рэспублікі Беларусь»

Gold medals: Richmond 2015: individual time trial; Baku 2015: individual race.

Silver medals: Doha 2016: individual time trial.

Bronze medals: Limburg 2012: individual time trial; Tuscany 2013: team time trial.

World champion in the individual time trial. Honored Master of Sports of the Republic of Belarus. World Champion in 2015; European Games Champion in 2015; Champion of Belarus in 2015. Member of the Belarusian national cycling team, cyclist of the Sky Procycling team.

Еlena Amialiusik - group race. Belarusian road cyclist, member of the Velocio-SRAM team.

Еlena Amialiusik
Magazine «Спортtime»

Born on February 6, 1989, in Bobruisk, BSSR. 169 cm in height.

World Champion in 2015 in the team race, multiple champion of Belarus.

In 2016 she joined the Canyon SRAM Racing team.

Gold medals: Richmond 2015: team race; Baku 2015: group race.

Silver medals: Doha 2016: team race .

Bronze medals: Ponferrada 2014: team race.

There are 7 regional departments of the Belarusian Cycling Federation (BCF) in Belarus, more than 3500 riders and 100 days of competitions, including national calendar competitions, participation of Belarusian riders in the main seasonal competitions: World and European Championships, Olympic Games.

The BCF’s official calendar includes more than 30 different competitions of the republican level, including the 500 and 800 km cycling multiday races.

In order to compete on equal terms with the leading cycling countries, it is necessary, according to experts, to delegate our cyclists to foreign professional teams or to create their own professional teams, financing them at the state level.

Those who go to the roads will never say “cyclist” about each other, they will not even say “athlete”. They will certainly pronounce the word "racer", because for them the racer is the synonymous for the word "fighter". This title is a great honor and must be earned.

Group start is a serious test for cyclists. At any moment the group can collapse like a house of cards
Magazine «Спортtime»

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